اثر شوری بر خصوصیات جوانه‌زنی و رشد گیاهچه گیاهان دارویی هوفاریقون و قدومه شیرازی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان، دامغان، ایران.

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی خصوصیات جوانه‌زنی و رشد گیاهچه دو گیاه دارویی قدومه و هوفاریقون تحت تنش شوری، آزمایشی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با فاکتور شوری (کلرید سدیم) در 6 سطح (0، 2، 4، 6، 8 و 10 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر) و چهار تکرار، در آزمایشگاه علوم زراعی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان در سال 1391 انجام گرفت. تنش شوری اثر معنی‌داری بر کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه داشت. در هر دو گیاه، تحت تأثیر تنش شوری، درصد و سرعت جوانه‌زنی، وزن تر و خشک ریشه‌چه و ساقه‌چه، نسبت وزن خشک ریشه‌چه به ساقه‌چه، طول ریشه‌چه و ساقه‌چه، بنیه بذر، شاخص تحمل به شوری به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش و میانگین زمان جوانه‌زنی افزایش یافت. اکثر پارامترهای اندازه‌گیری شده، در هوفاریقون در سطوح پایین‌تر شوری، به طور معنی‌داری دچار کاهش شدند. اما در قدومه، برخی از صفات مانند طول ساقه‌چه و وزن تر و خشک ریشه‌چه و وزن تر و خشک ساقه‌چه در سطوح اولیه شوری تفاوت معنی‌داری نسبت به شاهد نشان ندادند ولی در شوری‌های شدیدتر دچار کاهش معنی‌داری گردیدند. شاخص تحمل به شوری در هوفاریقون در مقایسه با قدومه، در سطح شوری پایین‌تر در مقایسه با شاهد دچار کاهش معنی‌داری شد و می‌توان نتیجه گرفت، هوفاریقون نسبت به شوری حساس‌تر می‌باشد ولی قدومه تحمل نسبتا خوبی در برابر تنش شوری به خصوص سطوح پایین‌تر و ضعیف‌تر شوری دارا می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Al Niemi, T.S., Campbell, W.F., and Rumbaug, D. 1992. Response of alfalfa cultivars to salinity during germination and postgermination growth. Crop Science, 32: 476-480.

Anvari, M., Mehdikhani, H., Shahriari, A.R. and Nouri, Gh.R. 2009. Effect of salinity stress on 7 species of range plants in germination stage. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 16(2): 266-273. (In Persian)

Azarneevand, H., Nosrati, K., Bizhanzadeh, E. and Shahbazi, A. 2005. Influence of salinity and temperature on germination and growth of two species of Atriplex. Desert, 10(2): 383-398. (In Persian)

Azizi, M. and Omidbeigi, R. 2001. Effects of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on growth, yield and hypericin content of St. John’s wort. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 32(4):719-725. (In Persian)

Bao, G.R., Wu, R.H., Baoburen, Q.Q., Wang, H.L. and Chen, L. 2010. Effect of saline on seed germination of Onobrychis viciaefolia, Journal of Inner Mongolia for Nationalities (Natural Sciences), 25 (6): 640–642.

Baghbani, A., Forghani, A.H. and Kadkhodaie, A. 2013. Study of salinity stress on germination and seedling growth in greenhouse cucumber cultivars. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(3):1137-1140.

Behboudian, B., Lahouti, M. and Nezami, A. 2006. Effects of salt stress on germination of chickpeas cultivars. The Scientific Journal of Agriculture (SJA), 28(2): 127-137. (In Persian)

Butola, J.S., Pant, S. and Samant, A.A. 2007. Effect of pre-sowing seed treatments in Hypericum perforatum L: A high value medicinal plant. Seed Research, 35(2): 205-209.

Cellarova, E., Kimakova, K., Daxnerova, Z. and martonfi, P. 1995. Hypericum perforatum (St. Johns wort): In vitro culture and the production of Hypericin and other secondarymetabolites. Bajaj, Y.P.S.(ed): Biotechnology in Agriculture and forestry, 33: Medicinal and Aromatic Plant, VIII. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer- Verlag. 261-275.

Deng, Y., Yuan, F., Feng, Z., Ding, T., Song, J. and Wang, B. 2014. Comparative study on seed germination characteristics of two species of Australia saltbush under salt stress. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 34: 337–341.

Dianati tilaki, G.A., Nasiri, M., Nouri, S. and Kaboli, S.H. 2005. The effect of salinity stress on seed germination of four accessions of two Aeluropus species. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 12 (3(20)): 335-349. (In Persian)

Fahid, F., Mazooji, A., Salimpour, F. and Tajadod, G. 2009. Micromorphological study on several Alyssum L. species (Brassicaceae). The quarterly journal of biological sciences, Azad Islamic university, Zanjan Branch, 3(1): 53-58. (In Persian)

Fallahi, J., Ebadi, M.T. and Ghorbani, R. 2009. The effects of salinity and drought stress on germination and seedling growth of clary. Environmental Stresses in Crop Science, 1(1): 57-67. (In Persian)

Farshid, R., Sahrai, E. and Zamani, Gh.R. 2014. Effect of NaCl salinity on germination and seedling growth of 12 Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 12(1): 146-152. (In Persian)

Gill, S.S. and Tuteja, N. 2010. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abioticstress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48: 909-30.

Glenn, E.P. and Brown, J.J. 1999. Salt tolerance and crop potential of halophytes. Critical Reviews In Plant Sciences, 18: 227-255.

Hajghani, M., Saffari, M. and Maghsoudi Moud, A.A. 2008. The effect of different levels of salinity (NaCl) on germination and seedling growth of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Water and Soil Science,12(45): 449-458. (In Persian)

Isvand, H.R. and Alizadeh, M.A. 2003. Evaluation in some seed quality characters (germination and vigor index) of Moldavin balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) using accelerated against test. Iranian Journal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research, 11(2): 249-256. (In Persian)

Kafi, M. and Rahimi, Z. 2010. Effect of different levels of salinity on germination characteristics of (Portulaca oleracea L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 8(4): 615-621. (In Persian)

Karimi Roozbehani, K., Farboodi, M., Moraghebi, F., Khodabandeh, N. and Ekhtiari, R. 2010. The effect of salinity on germination of green gram (Vigna radiate L.), in laboratory conditions. Journal of Plant and Ecosystem, 6(23): 53-65. (In Persian)

Katembe, W.J., Ungar, I.A. and Mitchell, J.P. 1998. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Seedling Growth of two Atriplex species (Chenopodiaceae). Annals of Botani, 82: 167-175.

Keshavarz Afshar, R., Keykhah, M., Chaeichi, M.R. and Ansari, M. 2012. Effect of different levels of salinity and drought stress on seed germination characteristics and seedling growth of forage Turnip (Brassica rapa L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 43(4): 661-671. (In Persian)

Khammari, I., Sarani, Sh.A. and Dahmardeh, M. 2007. The effect of salinity on seed germination and growth in six medicinal plants. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 23(3): 331-339. (In Persian)

Khosh Kholgh Sima, N.A., Alitabar, R.A., Eghbali Nejad, M., Babazadeh, P. and Tale Ahmad, S. 2013. Effect of salinity on germination and threshold salinity in Barley. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 11(1): 107-120. (In Persian)

Koochaki, A., Shahidi, F., Mortazavi, S.A., Karimi, M. and Milani, E. 2011. Effect of Qodume shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum) seed and xanthan gum on Rheological properties of wheat flour dough and quality of bread. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 7(1): 9-16. (In Persian)

Main, M.A.R. and Nafziger, E.D. 1994. Seed size and water potential effect on germination and salinity growth of winter wheat. Crop Scientific, 34:169-171.

Mauromicale, G. and Licandro, P. 2002. Salinity and temperature effects on germination, emergence and seedling growth of global Artichoke. Agronomie, 22:443-450.

Mir Mohammadi Meybodi, A.M. and GhareYazi, B. 2002. Physiologic and breeding aspects of salt stress. Esfahan University of Technology Press. 274p. (In Persian)

Moradi, R. and Rezvani Moghaddam, P. 2010. The effects of seed pre-priming with salicylic ACID under salinity stress on germination and growth characteristics of Foeniculum vurgare Mill (Fennel). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 8(3):489-500. (In Persian)

Munns, R., Greenway, H., Delane, R. and Gibbs, J. 1982. Ion concentration and carbohydrate status of the elongating leaf tissue of Hordeum vulgare growing at high external NaCl. Journal of Experimental Botany, 33: 574-583.

Parida, A.K. and Das, A.B. 2005. Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants. A review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety,60: 324-349.

Rashid, M.M, Hoque, A.K.F. and Iftekhar, M.S. 2004. Salt tolerances of some multipurpose Tree species as determined by seed germination. Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(3): 288-292.

Sedaghati, A.R., Kafi, M., Rezvan Beidokhti, Sh. and Akbari, Sh. 2016. Effects of planting date and density on yield and yield components and allicin content of two garlic (Allium sativum L.) ecotypes. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31(6): 1024-1034.

Yazdani Biuki, R.,Rezvani Moghaddam,P., Khazaie, H.R., Ghorbani, R. and Astaraei, A.R. 2010. Effects of salinity and drought stresses on germination characteristics of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 8(1):12-19. (In Persian)