Abdul-Baki, A.A.and Anderson, J.D. 1973. Vigor determination in soybean by multiple criteria. Crop Science. 13: 630-633.
Adam, N.R., Dierig, D.A., Coffelt, T.A. and Wintermeyer, M.J. 2007. Cardinal temperatures for germination and early growth of two Lesquerella species. Industrial Crops and Products. 25:24-33.
Alebrahim, M.T. Kazerooni, E., Khaje Hosseini, M. and Majd, R. 2010. The effect of sulfuric acid sodium hydroxide on breaking seed dormancy in Mesquite. The 3rd Iranian Weed Science Congress. (In Persian).
Ali-Rachedi, S., Bouinot, D., Wagner, M.H., Bonnet,M., Sotta, B., Grappin, P. and Jullien, M. 2004. Changes in endogenous abscisic acid levels during dormancy release and maintenance of mature seeds: studies with the Cape Verde Islands ecotype, the dormant model of Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta. 219:479-488.
Al-Qura’n, S. 2008. Taxonomical and pharmacological survey of therapeutic plants in Jordan. Journal of Natural Products. 1: 10-26.
Al-Sherif, E.A. 2007. Effect of scarifycation, salinity and preheating on seed germination of Prosopis farcta (Banks and Soland) Macbr.- Ame-Euras. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. 2: 227-230. (In Persian).
Alvarado, V., and Bradford, K.J. 2005. Hydrothermaltime analysis of seed dormancy in true (botanical) potato seeds. Seed Science Research.15: 77-88.
Amooaghaie, R. 2008. The effect of soaking, temperature and duration of pre-chilling on seed dormancy breaking of Ferula ovina, IranianJournal of Biology. 18(4): 350-359.
Anonymous, 2003. Hand Book for Seedling Evaluation (3rd.Ed.). International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), Zurich, Switzerla nd. 143pp.
Babaee, K., Dehaghi, M.A., Sanavi, S.A.M.M. and Jabbari, R. 2010. Water deficit effect on morphology, prolin content and thymol percentage of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 26: 239-251. (Persian).
Bakhtavar, Z. and Omidi, H. 2014. Effect of hot water treatments and mechanical abrasion on germination of medicinal plant Prosopis (Prosopis fracta). Seed and plant Improvement Institute Karaj, Iran, August. 24-26.
Baskin, C.C., Meyer, E. and Baskin, J.M. 1995. Two type morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of two genera Osmorhiza and Erythronium with an Arc to-Tertiary distribution pattern. American Journal of Botany. 82: 293-298.
Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. 2005. Underdeveloped embryos in dwarf seeds and implications for assignment to dormancy class. Seed Science Research. 15: 357-360.
Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. 1991. Nondeep complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of Osmorhiza ckiytonii (Apiaceae). American Journalof Botany. 78: 588-593.
Bettey, M., Finch-Savage, W.E., King, G.J. and Lynn, JR. 2000. Quantitative genetic analysis of seed vigour and pre-emergence seedling growth traits in Brassica oleracea. New Phytologist. 148: 277-286.
Biddington, N.L., Brouckle hourst, D.A., Dtarmun, A.S. and Dearman, J. 1982. The prevention of dehydration injury in celery (Apium graveolens) seeds by PEG, ABA, dark and light temperatures. Plant Physiology. 55: 407-409.
Bradford, K.J. 1990. A water relations analysis of seed germination rates. Plant Physiology. 94: 840-849.
Cadman, C.S.C., Toorop, P.E., Hilhorst, H.W.M. andFinch-Savage, W.E. 2006. Gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis Cvi seed during cycling through dormant and non-dormant states indicate a common underlying dormancy control mechanism. Plant Journal. 46: 805-822.
Elias, S., Garay, A., Hanning, S. and Schweitzer, L. 2003. Seed testing services for cereals. Crop soil news. 17(4): 1-4.
Ellis, R.H, Hong, T.D. and Roberts, E.H. 1985. Handbook of seed technology for gene banks, Vol. 2, Rome, IBPGR. p: 511-513.
El-Tayeb, M.A. 2005. Response of barley Grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regulation. 45: 215-225.
Ghaffarri, R., Meighani, F. and Salimi, H. 2015. Germination ecophysiolology of mesquite weed (Prosopis farcta L.). Nova Biologica Reperta. 1: 23-33. (In Persian).
Ghadamyari, Sh., Mozafari, J., Sokhandan Bashir, N., Mosavi , L. and Rakhshandehroo, F. 2012. Synergistic effects of mechanical and chemical treatments on seed germination of Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.). Iranian Journal of Biological. 24(6): 809-817.
Heidari Sharif Abad, H. 2009. Seed Economics. Proc. 1'st Iran The National Seed Science and Technology. Gorgan, Iran. p 4. (In Persian).
International Seed Testing Association. 1993. International rules for seed testing. Seed Science Technology. 21: 160-186.
ISTA. 2003. International rules for seed testing. International seed testing association (ISTA).
ISTA. 2010. International rules for seed testing. International seed testingassociation (ISTA.(
Kaye, T.N, Liston, A., Love, R.N., Luoma, D.L, Meinke, R.J. and Wilson, M.V. 1997. Seed dormancy in high elevation plants: Implications for ecology and restoration, Plant Conservation Biology Program, Oregon Department of Agriculture, 635 Capitol NE, Salem, OR 97310-0110 and Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR . 97331-2902.
Khaled Tawaha, Feras Q., Alali, Gharaibeh, M.and TamamEl-Elimat, M. 2007. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of selected Jordanian plant species. Food Chemistry. 104:1372-1378.
Koornneef, M., Bentsink, L. and Hilhorst, H. 2002. Seed dormancy and germination. Plant Biology. 5:33-36.
Kumar, P., 1997. Effect of Salicylic acid on flowering, pod formation and yield of pea (Pisum sativum L.). In Abst National Seminar on Plant Physiology for sustainable Agriculture. March 19-21 1997, IARI, New Dehli. P 69.
Metwally, A., Finkemeier, I., Georgi, M. and Dietz,K-J. 2003. Salicylic acid alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley seedlings. Physiology and Biochemistry of Plant. 132: 272-281.
Miller, T.R. and Chapman, S.R. 1978. Germination response of three Annu. Rev. PI. Physiol. 9: 25-46. forage grasses to different concentrations of six salts. Journal of Range Management. 31: 123-124.
Mojab, M., Hosseini, M., Zamani, G.R. and Kohansal, A. 2009. Evaluation of different dormancy breaking methods on germination and early growth traits of mesquite (Prosopis stephaniana). The 3rd Iranian Weed Science Congress, February. (In Persian).
Nadiafi, F., Bannayan, M., Tabrizi, L. and Rastgoo M. 2006. Seed germination and dormancy breaking techniques for Ferula gummosa and Teucrium polium. Journal of Arid Environments. 64: 542-547.
Nasiri, M. 2008. Investigation of suitable seed germination enhancement and breaking seed dormancy treatment of Montpellier maple (Acer monospessulanum L.). IranianJournal of Rangelands and Forests Plant Breeding and Genetic Research. 16(1): 94-105.(In Persian).
Okcu, G., Kaya, M.D. and Atak, M. 2005. Effects of salt and drought stresses on germination and seedling growth of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 29: 237-242.
Omidi, H. 2010. Changes of Proline Content and Activity of Antioxidative Enzymes in Two Canola Genotype under Drought Stress. American Journal of Plant Physiology. 5: 338-349.
Omidi, H., Movahadi Pouya, F. and Movahadi Pouya, S.H. 2012. The effect of salicylic acid and scarification on germination characteristics and proline, protein and soluble carbohydrate content of Prosopis (Prosopis farcta L.) seedling under salt stress. Iranian journal of Range and Desert Reseach. 18(4): 608-623.
Omidi, H., Soroush Zadeh, A., Salehi, A. and Den Ghazeli, P.H. 2005. Evaluation of pre-treated with osmopriming on canola seed germination. Agricultural Science and technology. 19 (2):125-136 (In Persian).
Ortega Baes, P., De Viana, M.L. and Sühring, S. 2002. Germination in Prosopis ferox seeds: effects of mechanical, chemical and biological Scarificators. Journal of Arid Environments. 50: 185-189.
Ortega-Baes, P. 2007. Seed germination of Trichocereus terscheckii: Light, temperature and gibberellic acid effects. Journal of Arid Environments. 69: 169-176.
Parmenter, G.A., Burton, L.C. and Littlejohn, R.P. 1996. Chilling requirement of commercial Echinacea seeds. News Zealand Journal of crop and Horticultural science. 24: 109-114.
Phartial, S.S., Thapliyal, R.C., Nayal, J.S. and Joshi, G. 2003. Seed dormancy in Himalayan maple (Acer caesium) I: Effect of stratification and phyto-hormones. Seed Science and technology. 31(1): 1-11.
Pirjalili, F., Hajibarat, Z., Hajibarat, Z. and Omidi, H. 2014. Seedling germination and biochemical features of basil (Ocimum basilium L.) treatments affected sleep break. Seed and plant Improvement Institute Karaj, Iran, August. P24-26.
Sasani, S., Tavakkol-Afshari, R., Pustini, K. and Sharifzadeh, F. 2007. Evaluation of perichilling, hormonal treatments and storage duration effects on seed dormancy and germination induction in Black cumin. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science. 2: 287-294. (In Persian).
Tewari, J.C., Harris, P.J.C., Harsh, L.N., Cadoret, K. and Pasiecznik, N.M. 2000. Managing Prosopis juliflora (Vilayati Babul): A Technical Manual. CAZRI, Jodhpur, India and HDRA, Coventry, UK. p 94. (English and Hindi versions).
Toky, O.P., Arya, S. and Bisht, R.P. 1992. Ecologicalperspective of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Duce in Aridand Semi-Arid India. R.W. Dutton al., eds. p 301-309.
Valdiani, A.R., Hassanzadeh, A. and Tajbakhsh,M. 2005. Study on the effects of salt stress in germination and embryo growth stages of the four prolific and new cultivars of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Pajouhesh and Sazandegi. 66: 23-32. [In Persian with English Summary].
Villiers, T.A. 1978. Dormancy and the survival of plants. Edward Arnold publishers limited. London. P71.
Wantabe, H., Kusagaya, Y. and Saigusa, M. 2002. Environmental factors affecting germination of apple of Peru. Weed Science. 50: 152-156.