بررسی اثرات تنش اسمزی بر برخی از خصوصیات رشد گیاهچه‌ای در مرحله جوانه‌زنی برنج

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار،موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ‏ترویج کشاورزی، رشت،

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی در مرحله جوانه‌‌زنی، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال 1395 در مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور در رشت انجام گرفت. عامل‌‌های مورد مطالعه شامل تنش خشکی ناشی از پلی‌اتیلن گلیکول 6000 (0، 5-  و 15– بار)  و سه رقم برنج هاشمی، طارم و خزر و 14 لاین موتانت حاصل از آنها بودند. صفات اندازه‌گیری ‌شده شامل طول و وزن خشک ریشه‌چه‌ و ساقه‌چه بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تنش خشکی، ژنوتیپ و اثر متقابل تنش در ژنوتیپ بر تمام صفات معنی‌دار بود. با افزایش تنش، میانگین کلیه صفات کاهش یافت. درصد کاهش طول ریشه‌چه (به‌ترتیب 45 و 25 درصد) و طول ساقه‌چه (به‌ترتیب 36 و 21 درصد) تحت هر دو شرایط تنش 5- و 15– بار، نسبت به سایر صفات بیشتر بود، که نشان‌ می‌دهد از آنها می‌توان به‌عنوان معیارهایی برای ارزیابی تحمل به خشکی استفاده کرد. در شرایط عدم تنش و تنش (5- و 15- بار)، ژنوتیپ 5 (TM6-B-7-1) با مقادیر 13/15، 00/14 و 38/12 سانتی‌متر دارای بیشترین طول ساقه‌چه بود. بیشترین میزان وزن خشک ریشه‌چه (به‌ترتیب برابر با 0119/0، 0107/0 و 0089/0 گرم) در شاهد و سطوح تنش‌ 5- و 15- بار مربوط به ژنوتیپ 12 (HM5-300-3-1) بود. از نظر شاخص تنش نیز ژنوتیپ‌های 5 و 6 (TM6-B-19-2) متحمل به خشکی بودند. در مجموع، لاین‌های موتانت 5 و 12 (HM5-300-3-1) متحمل به خشکی و ارقام خزر، هاشمی و طارم حساس به آن بودند. بنابراین لاین‌های‌ موتانت 5 و 12، ژنوتیپ‌هایی مناسب برای معرفی به‌عنوان رقم متحمل و یا برای استفاده در تحقیقات تحمل به خشکی بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Reference

Abdi, H., Bihamta, M.R., Azizov, E. and Chogan, R. 2015. Investigation effects of drought stress ievel PEG 6000 on seed germination principle and its relation with drought tolerance index in promising lines and cultivars of breed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Iranian J. Field Crops Res. 12(4): 582-596. (In Persian).

Akte, J. Yasmin, S., Bhuiyan, M.J.H., Khatun, F., Roy, J. and Goswami, K. 2016. In vitro screening of rice genotypes using polyethylene glycol under drought stress. Prog. Agri. 27 (2): 128-135.

Alam, M.Z., Naylor, R.E.L. and Stuchbury, T. 2002. Effect of NaCl and PEG induced osmotic potentials on germination and early seedling growth of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 5(11): 1207-1210.

Aminpanah, H., Sharifi, P. and Ebadi, A.A. 2018. Evaluation of Drought response in Some Rice Mutant Lines Using Stress Tolerance Indices. Iranian Journal Field Crops Research. 16(1): 191-202. (In Persian).

Azizinia, S., Ghannadha, M.R., Zali, A.A., Yazdi-Samadi, B. and Ahmadi, A. 2005. An evaluation of quantitative traits related to drought resistance in synthetic wheat genotypes in stress and non-stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Agriculture. Sci. 36: 281-293. (In Persian).

Balouchi, H.R. 2010. Screening wheat parents of mapping population for heat and drought tolerance, Selection of wheat genetic variation. Inter. J. Biol. Life Sci. 6: 56-66.

Afiukwa, C.A., Faluyi, J.O., Atkinson, C.J., Ubi, B.E., Igwe, D.O. and Akinwale, R.O. 2016. Screening of some rice varieties and landraces cultivated in Nigeria for drought tolerance based on phenotypic traits and their association with SSR polymorphisms. Journal of Agriculture Research. 11(29): 2599-2615.

Chiatante, D., Maiuro, L. and Scippa, G.S. 1995. Tolerance of meristematic root cells to water stress and quantitative variations of proteins at different subcellular level. In: Bryant, J.A., Chiatante, D. (Eds.), Plant Cell Proliferation and its Regulation in Growth and Development. Wiley. P119-134. 

Demir Kaya, M., Okcu, M., Atak, G., Cikili, Y. and Kolsarici, O. 2006. Seed treatment to overcome Salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Europ. Journal of Agronomy. 24: 291- 295.

Emmerich, W.E. and Hardegree, S.P. 1990. Polyethylene glycol solution contact effects on seed germination. Journal of Agronomy. 82: 1103-1107.

Esmaili, A. and Eslami, S.V. 2010. Comparative evaluation of the effects of salinity and drought on germination and seedling growth of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its relationship with their competition under stress conditions. Weed Research Journal. 2(1): 29-41. (In Persian).

FAO. 2015. FAO annual statistics reports. Available from: http://faostat.fao.org/site/567.

Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Lee, D.J., Ito, O. and Siddique, K.H.M. 2009. Advances in drought resistance of rice. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 28: 199-217.

Fischer, R.A. and Maurer, R. 1978. Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivar: I- Grain yield response. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research. 29: 897-912.

Greenway, H., and Munns, R. 1990. Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Nonhalophytes Annual. Rev. Plant Phys. 31:141-190.

Gupta, N., Singh, J. and Kaur, N.R. 1991. Effect of PEG-induce water deficit on germination of chick pea cultivars differing in drought tolerance. Journal of Agronomy. 107: 177-182.

Khafagy, M.A; Darowish, M.M., Salama, S.M. and El-Shimaa A.M. 2014.Effect of water priming duration on rice (Oryza sativa L.) germination and seedling growth under iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl and PEG. J. Plant Prod. 5(12): 2141 -2157.

Jisha, K.C. and Puthur, J.T. 2016. Seed priming with beta-amino butyric acid improves abiotic stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Rice Sci. 23(5): 242–254.

Leung, H. and A.n., G. 2004. Rice functional genomics: large scale gene discovery and applications for crop improvement. Agronomy. 82: 55-111.

Michel, E.B. and Kaufman, M.K. 1974. The osmotic potential of polyethylen glycol 6000. Plant Phys. 51:914-916.

Naghdabadi, H., Omidi., H., Shams., H., Kian., I., Dehqan Meshkani, M. and Saif Sahandi, M. 2006. Inhibitory effects of aqueous extract of Peganum harmala (Peganum harmala L.) on germination and seedling growth of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) and Chenopodium (Chenopodium album L.). Journal of  Medicin. Herb. 33: 116-127. (In Persian).

Panahabadi, R., Ahmadikhah, A. and Askari, H. 2016. The effects of drought stress on morpho-physiological characters and expression of OsCat A in rice seedling. Journal of Agriculture. Biotec. 8(2):1-16. (In Persian).

Panda, S.K. and Khan, M.H. 2004. Changes in growth and superoxide dismutase activity in Hydrilla verticillata L. under abiotic stress. Braz. J. Plant Phys. 16:115-118.

Pirdashti, H., Sarvestani Tahmasebi, Z., Nematzadeh, G.H. and Ismail, A. 2003. Effect of water stress on seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Pakistan Journal of Agronomy. 2: 217-222.

Rabiei, B., Mardani, Z., Ghomi, K., Sabori, H. and Sabori, A. 2015. The effect of rice chromosome 1 on traits associated with drought and salinity tolerance at germination and seedling stages. Seed Plant Improvment Journal. 30: 1-16. (In Persian).

Rehman, S., Harris, P.J.C., Bourne, W.F. and Wilkin, J. 1996. The effect of sodium chloride on germination and the potassium and calcium content of Acacies seeds. Seed Sci. Technol. 25:45-57.

Reyniers, F.N., Truong, B., Jacquinot, L. and Nicou, R. 1982. Breeding for drought resistance in dryland rice, In: Drought Resistance in Crops with Emphasis on Rice. IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines. P 273-292.

Hossaini, S.V., Ganjeali, A., Lahouti, M. and Beyk Khormizi, A. 2014. Effect of drought stress on seed germination and some morphopysiological and biochemical traits of Oryza sativa L. cv. Hashemi seedlings. Agronomy Journal. 104: 182-188. (In Persian).

Sharp, R.E. 2002. Interaction with ethylene: changing views on therole of abscisic acid in root and shoot growth responses to water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment. 25: 211-222.

Sharifi, P, Aminpanah, H. and Ebadi, A.A. 2018. Evaluation of some agronomic traits and their association with grain yield in mutant rice lines under normal and post-anthesis drought stress conditions. J. Crop Breed. 10(27): 180-195. (In Persian).

Sharifi, P, Aminpanah, H. and Ebadi, A.A. 2017. Classification of mutant rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes under drought stress conditions. Iranian Agrobreed Journal. 19 (2): 148- 164. (In Persian).

Soltani, A., Galeshi, S., Zeinali, E. and Latifi, N. 2002. Germination, seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of chickpea as affected by salinity and seed size. Seed Sci. Tech. 30:51-60. (In Persian).

Soltani, A., Gholipoor, M. and Zeinali, E. 2006. Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of wheat as affected by drought and salinity. Env. Exp. Bot. 55: 195- 200.

Sudharani, M., Reddy, P.R. and Jayalakshmi, V. 2012. A comprehensive review on genetic components of salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Inter. Journal Applied. Biology. Phar. Tech. 3: 312-322.

Ye, C., Fukai, S., Godwin, I., Reinker, R., Snell, P., Schiller, J. and Basnayake, J. 2009. Cold tolerance in rice varieties at different growth stages. Crop Pas. Sci. 60: 328-338.

Yilmaz, A. and Boydak, E. 2006. The effect of cobalt-60 application yield components of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). Pakistan Journal Biology Sci. 9(15): 2761-2769.

Zarei, L., Farshadfar, E., Haghparast, R., Rajabi, R. and Mohammadi SarabBadieh, M. 2007. Evaluation of some indirect traits and indexes to identify drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Asian Journal Plant Sci. 6: 1204-1210.