بررسی پاسخ جوانه‌زنی اکوتیپ‌های مختلف بابونه (Matricaria chamomilla L.) به نیترات سرب

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد بیوتکنولوژی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

بابونه با نام علمی Matricaria chamomilla L. گیاهی یک ساله از تیره کاسنیان است که از گل­های آن در صنایع داروسازی، آرایشی، بهداشتی و غذایی و همچنین در تهیه مواد دارویی استفاده می­شود. فلزات سنگین بیوسفر از زمان شروع انقلاب صنعتی در حال افزایش است و سمیت فلزات سنگین سبب اختلال در فرایند جوانه­زنی و رشد گیاهان می­گردد. آلودگی ناشی از حضور فلزات سنگین در خاک­های کشاورزی، یکی از مهم‌ترین مشکلات اکولوژیک در سطح جهان است. سرب یکی از سمی­ترین فلزات سنگین است که عموماً کاهش جوانه­زنی و رشد گیاهچه گیاهان در اثر سمیت آن مشاهده شده است. در این تحقیق، با توجه به اهمیت دارویی و صنعتی گیاه بابونه آزمایشی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار در آزمایشگاه دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی در سال 1395 به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای مورد آزمون سه اکوتیپ مختلف گیاه بابونه (آلمانی، مجارستانی و مشهد) و نیترات سرب در 4 سطح (صفر، 50، 100 و 150 میکرومول) انجام شد. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که کاربرد نیترات سرب شاخص­های جوانه­زنی مانند درصد جوانه­زنی را از 88/60 به 33/51 درصد و سرعت جوانه­زنی را از 51/0 روز در شاهد به 42/0 روز در سطح 150 میکرومول کاهش داد. و سبب افزایش متوسط جوانه­زنی از 90/1 به 40/2 روز شد. طول ریشه­چه از 27/20 میلی­متر به 83/16 میلی­متر در سطح 150 میکرومولار، طول گیاه­چه از میانگین 87/27 میلی­متر به 63/24 میلی­متر در سطح 150 میکرومولار و شاخص قدرت از 70/17 به میانگین 18/13 در کاربرد 150 میکرومولار در اثر کاربرد نیترات سرب کاهش یافتند. به‌طور کلی نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که از بین اکوتیپ­های مورد بررسی، اکوتیپ مجارستان متحمل‌ترین و آلمانی حساس‌ترین اکوتیپ­ها به نیترات سرب بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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